please respond to meghan with 200
Topic 1: Research current trends.
Divorce is a very real factor that affects childhood. According to SMU Daily Campus (2020) In the United States 39% of marriages have ended in divorce. This trend has decreased, Bern (2016) stated “ Based on past data, almost one out of two marriages ends in divorce.” (p.93). Children of divorced families may experience many negative emotions, according to Berns, (2016), they experience a sense of loss, loyalties issues regarding parents, and a feeling of helplessness. According to Hetherington & Kelly, (2002), many of these children have behavioral problems, and lower academic performance levels.
The reasons for single parenting are many. Berns, (2016) states “ Single parenthood can occur through death, desertion, divorce, births outside marriage (including via various reproductive technologies), and adoption without marriage” (p. 95). According to Karmer, (2019) single parenthood is now at the world’s highest rate. Almost ¼ of children under the age of 18 are living with one parent. Understanding these numbers can give incite to problems facing single parents. Berns, (2016) stated, that single parents usually have limited income resources, and problems obtaining child care.
Children are often raised by their Grandparents today. FIFCFS,(2013) discussed, “ Among children under age 18 not living with either parent, about 55 percent are cared for by a grandparent, and about 22 percent are cared for by other relatives” (as cited in Berns, 2016, p.97). These numbers are evident as according to Jones, (2018) who stated that in the U.S. There are 2.7 million grandparents caring for their grandchildren. She also pointed out that even if one parent lives in the home with the children the grandparents took on the majority of the responsibilities in the care of the children. There are many challenges for these grandparents. Berns,(2016) stated “ The constant challenge leaves many grandparents physically, emotionally, and financially drained” (p. 97). A positive factor is that the child/children have an established bond already in place with their grandparents.
Many children today live with same-sex parents. According to the united States Census Bureau, (2019), CPS gives a estimate that in the U.S. 191,000 children live in homes of same-sex parents. These parents identified themselves as gender neutral. These children can experience some negative challenges. Goldberg, (2009) discussed “ Variables affecting the adolescents’ perception of the situation include their relationship with the biological parents, the partner, and friends; level of acceptance in the community; and self-confidence” ( as cited in Berns, 2016, p. 103).
Society today has many children living in a family of unmarried parents. According to Livingston, (2018) In the U.S. One- in-four parents of a child are unmarried, and 35% of those households live with their partners. Unmarried fathers living without a partner accounted for 12 % of U.S. Homes. These children have many issues that affect their lives. CDF, (2012), Patterson & Hastings, (2007) stated, “ Most research on children growing up without a married mother and father reports a higher incidence of poverty, poor academic performance, emotional or behavioral problems, and substance abuse.” (as cited in Berns, 2016).
Families of children facing difficulties do to the environment of the home must locate resources to support the family unit. Divorced parents if possible should find a common ground, and be able to communicate peaceably with each other regarding their children. The children should not be torn between parents or used as pawns. Many children experience emotional stress and may need to have counseling services available to them. These same resources should be also available to single parent homes, grandparents, same-sex parents,and unmarried parents. Many families may need financial help and may need to locate assistance. Child-care services may be available in the area where the family is located. The county can provide assistance with these resources. Families must find strategies together to build strong relationships and empower each other. Making family traditions for everyone to look forward to is essential. The family is the most important institution in the world, and we must do everything possible to preserve it.
Topic 2: Social Class Structure.
The information regarding social structure in reference to class involving occupations and incomes within the United States gives a very accurate picture of the overall economy of the U.S. Our society is made up of low skilled and very highly skilled educated people. The chart on page, 107 gives a accurate picture of how incomes are based upon those skills and socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic status influences the lives of children in many ways. Some children are born into a ascribed status. According to Berns (2016) “ Ascribed status- Social class, rank, or position determined by family lineage, gender, birth order, or skin color” (p. 105). In many upper class families children are born with everything in place for a productive future. They have all the tools available to them to achieve their goals in life. Higher education at prestigious schools and colleges are generally attended by children born with ascribed status. Within the United States many children use achieved status to move into a higher ranking regarding occupation and income. According to Berns, (2016), “ Achieved status- Social class, rank, or position determined by education, occupation, income, and/or place of residence” (p.105). U.S. Citizens can strive to obtain the best education available through scholarships, sports, or other abilities they have. Underclass children do have a harder time striving to remove themselves from the environment they are raised in. According to Berns,(2016) underclass children are faced with many problems such as poverty, homelessness, poor health care, lack of chid-care, community services, and high crime rates. These children must strive to overcome their economic situations to obtain a better life.
SMU Daily Campus. (2020,February 21). How Frequently Are People Divorcing in 2020?https://www.smudailycampus.com/sponsoredcontent/promoted/how-frequently-are-people-divorcing-in-2020 (Links to an external site.)
Kramer, S.(2019, December 12). U.S. Has world’s highest rate of children living in single-parent house holds. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2019/12/12/u-s-children-more-likely-than-children-in-other-countries-to-live-with-just-one-parent/ (Links to an external site.)
Jones, S. (2018, January 8). The Grandparenting Generation why are so many children being raised by their grandparents. https://newrepublic.com/article/146519/grandparenting-generation (Links to an external site.)
United states Census Bureau. (2019, November 19). U.S. Census Bureau Releases CPS Estimates of Same-sex Households. https://www.census.gov/newsroom/press-releases/2019/same-sex-households.html (Links to an external site.)
Livingston, G. (2018, April 25). The Changing Profile of Unmarried parents A growing share are living with a partner. https://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2018/04/25/the-changing-profile-of-unmarried-parents/